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GMAT Arithmetic 2023: Guide on GMAT Arithmetic Syllabus, Topics, Questions, Formulas & More

Yocket Editorial Team

While you were studying and getting ready for the quantitative component of the GMAT, you may have come across a few distinct sorts of GMAT arithmetic questions. These are actually extremely common in the quantitative reasoning section and can frequently be intermingled with other GMAT algebra and GMAT geometry questions.

Algebra, geometry, and basic arithmetic are some of the areas of mathematics that are put to the exam on the GMAT Quantitative section.   The vast majority of the arithmetic problems on the GMAT are rather easy to solve. Keep reading to learn about the specific arithmetic concepts that will be discussed, nifty tips and more to help you crack the GMAT.

Table Of Contents
  1. Brief Overview Of GMAT Arithmetic
  2. What To Expect in the GMAT Arithmetic Section?
  3. Best Ways To Prep For GMAT Arithmetic
  4. Top GMAT Arithmetic Prep Books

Brief Overview Of GMAT Arithmetic

The GMAT's data sufficiency and problem-solving sections examine a wide range of arithmetic concepts. As with all GMAT quant questions, you'll need to be able to use more than just the basic arithmetic concepts. GMAT arithmetic includes concepts that were also covered in high school.

GMAT arithmetic syllabus includes Arithmetic Operations, Number Properties, Fractions, Ratio and Proportions, Percents, Powers and Roots of Numbers, Statistics, Combinatorics (Counting Methods), Discrete Probability. In order to score well on the GMAT, students must have a solid grasp of arithmetic concepts.

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What To Expect in the GMAT A Section?

GMAT Math covers 31 questions. The GMAT Arithmetic syllabus mostly focuses on GMAT arithmetic formulas for topics like Arithmetic operations (basic fundamentals like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division), Number properties (even and odds, consecutive integers and multiples, prime numbers, positives and negatives) fractions (rules for solving fraction problems like adding and subtracting, multiplication and division).

It also covers ratios and proportions (fractions in disguise. Compare the parts of a whole with each other), Percentage (basic rules of solving it), Power and roots(Laws of Exponents and Roots), Statistics (descriptive statistics and statistical significance. Mean, median, mode, range, and standard deviation), counting methods (permutations and combinations) discrete probability (dice problems, card problems, and more). The GMAT's evaluation of Arithmetic concepts can be condensed into the following subcategories:


  • Basic average
  • Weighted average


  • Simplification
  • Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and decimals

Descriptive statistics          

  • Comparing mean, median, mode, and standard deviation


  • Increase and decrease calculation


  • Addition, multiplication, and division of fractions
  • Mixed numbers
  • Finding out equivalent number
  • Even and odd
  • Positive and negative
  • Prime numbers


  • Consecutive integers Mathematical operations
  • Addition and deduction, multiplication and division
  • Properties of the integer 0

Mixtures and allegations

  • Mixtures /blends problems
  • Mixing two or more liquids
  • Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixture

Multiple and factors

  • Use of unit digit
  • Finding out multiples and factors

Number Properties

  • Integers and whole number
  • Rational and irrational numbers
  • Prime number
  • Prime factorization
  • Absolute value
  • Orders of equations
  • Number system
  • Number Theory

Permutation combination   

  • Principle of multiplication
  • Factorial


  • Percentage increase and decrease in respect to the initial value
  • Equivalent Fractions of percentages
  • Percent changes as multipliers

Pipes, and cisterns

  • Time of filling a tank
  • Pipe leak and filling a reservoir
  • Partly filling of a tank with a leaking pipe

Power and Roots

  • Exponents – positive and negative
  • Multiplying and dividing exponents
  • Fractional exponents
  • Roots’ properties- radicals
  • Squaring and square roots


  • Studying basic examples of flipping a coin
  • Tossing a die
  • Drawing a card from a deck
  • Drawing marbles from a bowl
  • Drawing marbles from a bowl (second drawing)
  • Probability Rules – Disjoint or Mutually Exclusive Events

Profit and loss

  • Profit and loss
  • Amortisation
  • Loan
  • Payment

Ratio and proportion

  • Quantities
  • Comparison
  • Real number: absolute value and properties

Set Theory

  • Overlapping sets
  • Elements of sets
  • Venn diagram
  • Sets as groups
  • Similarity and difference
  • Part and whole

Simple and Compounded Interest       

  • Increase and decrease
  • comparing simple and compound interest on the same principle

Speed, time, and distance 

  • Calculating speed per hour
  • Calculating who is faster


  • Mean, median, mode, range

Work time

  • Working with more or fewer people
  • Completing the work faster

Best Ways To Prep For GMAT Arithmetic

Quantitative sections of the GMAT require a methodical approach in order to be successful. It might be useful to follow the following GMAT Arithmetic tips and tricks:

1.  Review your Math basics

The main GMAT arithmetic topics are arithmetic, algebra, and geometry. All of your major GMAT study preparation guides have a section on review, so don't rush through it; take the time to really go over the material again. Make flashcards for the GMAT arithmetic formulas that will take a little more time to stick in your mind. Use them when you have a few minutes to spare.

2.  Practise well

Numbers are the focus of arithmetic. So, careful guesswork will help you get rid of options that won't save you time. To do that, you need to practise and know the rules and patterns.

3.  Learn the shortcuts

Since calculators aren't allowed on the quantitative section, you'll have to learn the shortcuts to solve some problems.

4.  Have a flexible approach

You must know everything there is to know about things like number properties, fractions, rates, finding x, and basic geometry. Strategies like plugging in, picking a number, and working backward, which can be used to save time and check your answers, are just as important. Be open to different ways of doing things. The more you practise, the better you'll be able to predict what kinds of problems will come up on the finals.

Top GMAT Arithmetic Prep Books

GMAT arithmetic practice questions are among the most important components of GMAT preparation. By practising authentic GMAT Arithmetic questions, you can adequately prepare for the gmat arithmetic topics. Here are the top GMAT Quant Prep Books with excellent GMAT arithmetic practice questions to consult in 2023:

  1. GMAT Foundations of Math by Manhattan.
  2. GMAT All the Quant by Manhattan Prep.
  3. GMAT Advanced Quant by Manhattan Prep.
  4. GMAT Official Guide Quantitative Review.
  5. GMAT Official Advanced Questions.

Check out the best 2 month GMAT prep plan in 2023

There is a lot of material covered in the Quantitative section of the GMAT. The GMAT exam includes a wide variety of questions, from word problems to quadratic equations, data sufficiency questions to problem solving, and multiple-choice questions. For more information on GMAT Arithmetic or even about studying overseas, contact our Yocket counsellors today!

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Frequently Asked Questions About GMAT Arithmetic

What is arithmetic GMAT?

How difficult is GMAT math?

Is geometry asked in GMAT?

Are formulas given on GMAT?

Does GMAT have trigonometry?

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